A-level心理学课程介绍和主要考察内容 中英文详解
2017-04-18     10:44 来源: 来自互联网
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摘要:心理学是一门研究人的思想及行为的科学学科。‘psychology’这个单词来源于希腊语,‘psyche’在心理学中表示‘呼吸、精神、灵魂’,而‘logie’ 是希腊语中的研究某项事情、某种事物。
A-level心理学课程介绍和主要考察内容 中英文详解
什么是心理学?
Psychology is the science of the mind and behavior. The word "psychology" comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul", and the Greek word logia meaning the study of something.
心理学是一门研究人的思想及行为的科学学科。‘psychology’这个单词来源于希腊语,‘psyche’在心理学中表示‘呼吸、精神、灵魂’,而‘logie’ 是希腊语中的研究某项事情、某种事物。
There are a number of unique and distinctive branches of psychology. Each branch looks at questions and problems from a different perspective. While each branch has its own focus on psychological problems or concerns, all areas share a common goal of studying and explaining human thought and behavior. The following are some of the major branches of psychology within the field today.

A level psychology考察什么?
Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology learners develop their appreciation of the subject by exploring the ways in which psychology is conducted. As part of their studies, learners also review important research; this provides an insight into the ways in which psychology has been applied, thereby leading to a better understanding of key themes and issues.
The syllabus reflects five core areas of psychology, namely cognitive, social, physiological, developmental and the psychology of individual differences; it also relates psychology to education, health, organizations, the environment and abnormality.
教学大纲体现了心理学涉及的五个核心领域,即认知、社会、生理、发育和个体差异;它还涉及心理健康教育,组织,环境和异常心理学。

A level心理学的几大分支
a.Cognitive psychology 认知心理学
Cognitive psychology in psychology is a relatively modern approach to human behavior that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave. It is concerned with understanding mental processes such as memory, perception, thinking, and problem solving, and how they may be related to behavior.
这种方法把人脑视作为类似于电脑的加工系统,重点看大脑如何处理信息,加工信息,储存信息,思考,解决问题等进行一系列的脑力活动,以及这个过程如何影响我们的行为。想一想你为何记得每天带饭卡、出门带钥匙?你为何知道一道非常难的代数题的解法?你又为什么现在还记得很多小时候发生的事情?你的大脑功不可没!

b. Social psychology 社会心理学
Social psychology is interested in studying individuals in a social context, such as family, friends, institutions, and wider society. Social behavior may involve activity within a group or between groups.
社会心理学是研究个体和群体的社会心理现象的心理学分支。个体社会心理现象指受他人和群体制约的个人的思想、感情和行为。

c. Development psychology 发展心理学
This branch of psychology looks at development throughout the lifespan, from childhood to adulthood. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development.
这一分支的心理学着眼于整个生命周期的发展,从童年到成年。这是一项对于人类发展的科学研究,旨在了解和解释人们如何和为什么改变,在整个生命的进程中。这包括人类成长的各个方面,包括身体、情感、智力、社会、感性和个性的发展。

d. Physiological psychology生理心理学
Physiological psychology is concerned with the biological basis of behavior. It is also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, and is closely related to neuroscience. Physiological psychologists study the electrical and chemical functions and activities of the brain, and how they relate to a person's mental experience and behavior. This branch of psychology is an approach to psychological research, which is used to study many different psychological phenomena.
生理心理学关注行为的生物学基础。它也被称为生物心理学、生物心理学、心理生物学和神经科学。心理学家在这一领域研究电子和化学功能与大脑的活动,以及它们如何与一个人的心理体验和行为相关。心理学的这一分支是通过生理研究为重心的方法,研究许多不同的心理现象。

e. Abnormal psychology反常心理学/变态心理学
Abnormal psychology is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field.
反常心理学这个领域,关注于心理和行为异常。这个术语涵盖了广泛的疾病、失调紊乱,包括抑郁症、神经失调、性歪曲等等等等等。 辅导员,临床心理学家和心理治疗师常常工作在这一领域。

f. Education psychology 教育心理学
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues and student concerns. Educational psychologists often study how students learn or work directly with students, parents, teachers and administrators to improve student outcomes.
教育心理学是学校、教学心理学、教育问题和学生关注的心理学的分支。教育心理学家经常研究学生如何学习。通过直接与学生、家长、教师和管理人员的工作与交流,改善成果。

g. Behavioral Psychology 行为心理学
Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. While this branch of psychology dominated the field during the first part of the twentieth century, it became less prominent during the 1950s. However, behavioral techniques remain a mainstay in therapy, education and many other areas.
行为心理学,也被称为行为主义,是基于“所有的行为都是通过条件作用学习”的理论。虽然它在20世纪50年代变得不那么突出,但是行为心理学仍然是治疗,教育和许多其他领域的支柱。

h.Health psychology 教育心理学
Health psychology is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. Other terms including medical psychology and behavioral medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology. The field of health psychology is focused on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness.
健康心理学是一个专业领域,重点研究生物学、心理学、行为和社会因素对健康和疾病的影响。其他方面包括医学心理学和行为医学,有时与健康心理学术语交替使用。健康心理学领域的重点是促进健康,以及预防和治疗疾病。

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