Psychology is the science of the mind and behavior. The word "psychology" comes from the Greek word psyche meaning "breath, spirit, soul", and the Greek word logia meaning the study of something.
There are a number of unique and distinctive branches of psychology. Each branch looks at questions and problems from a different perspective. While each branch has its own focus on psychological problems or concerns, all areas share a common goal of studying and explaining human thought and behavior. The following are some of the major branches of psychology within the field today.
A level psychology考察什么？
Cambridge International AS and A Level Psychology learners develop their appreciation of the subject by exploring the ways in which psychology is conducted. As part of their studies, learners also review important research; this provides an insight into the ways in which psychology has been applied, thereby leading to a better understanding of key themes and issues.
The syllabus reflects five core areas of psychology, namely cognitive, social, physiological, developmental and the psychology of individual differences; it also relates psychology to education, health, organizations, the environment and abnormality.
a．Cognitive psychology 认知心理学
Cognitive psychology in psychology is a relatively modern approach to human behavior that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave. It is concerned with understanding mental processes such as memory, perception, thinking, and problem solving, and how they may be related to behavior.
b. Social psychology 社会心理学
Social psychology is interested in studying individuals in a social context, such as family, friends, institutions, and wider society. Social behavior may involve activity within a group or between groups.
c. Development psychology 发展心理学
This branch of psychology looks at development throughout the lifespan, from childhood to adulthood. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development.
d. Physiological psychology生理心理学
Physiological psychology is concerned with the biological basis of behavior. It is also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, and is closely related to neuroscience. Physiological psychologists study the electrical and chemical functions and activities of the brain, and how they relate to a person's mental experience and behavior. This branch of psychology is an approach to psychological research, which is used to study many different psychological phenomena.
e. Abnormal psychology反常心理学/变态心理学
Abnormal psychology is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field.
f. Education psychology 教育心理学
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues and student concerns. Educational psychologists often study how students learn or work directly with students, parents, teachers and administrators to improve student outcomes.
g. Behavioral Psychology 行为心理学
Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. While this branch of psychology dominated the field during the first part of the twentieth century, it became less prominent during the 1950s. However, behavioral techniques remain a mainstay in therapy, education and many other areas.
h．Health psychology 教育心理学
Health psychology is a specialty area that focuses on how biology, psychology, behavior and social factors influence health and illness. Other terms including medical psychology and behavioral medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with the term health psychology. The field of health psychology is focused on promoting health as well as the prevention and treatment of disease and illness.